Education System in Germany
A significant number of international students prefer studying at German schools, institutes, and universities because of its excellent global reputation. The basic law grants every German citizen the right to self-fulfillment and higher education. The goal of education policy is, therefore, to provide each citizen with opportunities to grow personally professionally and as a citizen in accordance with his or her abilities and preferences.Kindergarten(nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old. However, Most children, first attend Grundschule (literally meaning 'Ground School') for 4 years from the age of 6 to 9 followed by secondary education. The major types of German secondary schools include Gymnasium, Realschule, Hauptschule, Mittelschule. Gymnasium schools are more academically oriented, or a Gesamtschule, which is comparable to a Comprehensive School. In fact, Gymnasium prepares students for higher education and ends with the Abitur(a prerequisite for enrolling in university). In addition, everyone who wants to enter higher education studies in Germany must have a Higher Education Entrance Qualification.
The higher education institutes and universities in Germany are highly acclaimed and globally recognized. Most of the higher education institutes offer study programs taught in English to attract a significant number of international students. Moreover, most of the institutes also offer free German language classes.
Three major types of higher education institutes are present in Germany, which are as follows:
1. TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE(Technical schools): These institutes majorly teach subjects such as science, engineering, and technology.
2. FACHHOCHSCHULEN (Universities of applied sciences): These institutes offer programs that focus on practical training related to business, design, economics, and the social sector.
3. KUNSTHOCHSCHULEN (Colleges of art and music): These colleges offer creative and artistic programs and courses such as music, fine arts, fashion designing, and film-making.
In addition, the universities in Germany are broadly classified into Private and Public universities sharing some similarities, but at the same time, there are parts at which the difference between them is significantly huge. The cost of attendance is the part where Private and Public universities differentiate the most. The majority of the public universities charge minimal tuition fees to their international students, however, the private universities basically rely on private funding and as they need to collect tuitions in order to fulfill their budget and day-to-day operations. Also, in terms of class size, private universities prefer to teach in small batches facilitating one to one interactions with its faculty, unlike public universities where the class size is comparatively huge.
Around 374,580 international students are enrolled in German higher education institutions, making 13 % of the total student population. Universities enroll roughly 70% of the foreign students. Most of the international students’ study Engineering at German universities. They form 37 % of all international students.13.14 % growth in the number of Indian students studying in Germany and numbers reached 17.5 thousand in September 2018. The rate of growth of Indian students is 3 x the global average of 4.4 %. Indians form the 2nd largest group of international students enrolled at German universities, second only to Chinese.